گفتار درمانی تخصصی کرج 09121623463Comorbidity

Autism spectrum disorder is frequently associated with intellectual impairment and struc­tural language disorder (i.e., an inability to comprehend and construct sentences with proper grammar), which should be noted under the relevant specifiers when applicable. Many in­dividuals with autism spectrum disorder have psychiatric symptoms that do not form part of the diagnostic criteria for the disorder (about 70% of individuals with autism spectrum dis­order may have one comorbid mental disorder, and 40% may have two or more comorbid mental disorders). When criteria for both ADHD and autism spectrum disorder are met, both diagnoses should be given. This same principle applies to concurrent diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder and developmental coordination disorder, anxiety disorders, depressive

disorders, and other comorbid diagnoses. Among individuals who are nonverbal or have language deficits, observable signs such as changes in sleep or eating and increases in chal­lenging behavior should trigger an evaluation for anxiety or depression. Specific learning dif­ficulties (literacy and numeracy) are common, as is developmental coordination disorder. Medical conditions commonly associated with autism spectrum disorder should be noted under the “associated with a known medical/ genetic or environmental/ acquired cond ition ” specifier. Such medical conditions include epilepsy, sleep problems, and constipation. Avoidant-restrictive food intake disorder is a fairly frequent presenting feature of autism spectrum disorder, and extreme and narrow food preferences may persist

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