Temperamental. Heavy caffeine use has been observed among individuals with mental disorders, including eating disorders; smokers; prisoners; and drug and alcohol abusers. Thus, these individuals could be at higher risk for caffeine withdrawal upon acute caffeine abstinence.
Environmental. The unavailability of caffeine is an environmental risk factor for incipient withdrawal symptoms. While caffeine is legal and usually widely available, there are conditions in which caffeine use may be restricted, such as during medical procedures, pregnancy, hospitalizations, religious observances, wartime, travel, and research partici-