گفتار درمانی تخصصی کرج 09121623463Differential Diagnosis

Normal variations in academic attainment. Specific learning disorder is distinguished from normal variations in academic attainment due to external factors (e.g., lack of edu­cational opportunity, consistently poor instruction, learning in a second language), be­cause the learning difficulties persist in the presence of adequate educational opportunity and exposure to the same instruction as the peer group, and competency in the language of instruction, even when it is different from one’s primary spoken language.

Intellectual disability (intellectual developmental disorder). Specific learning disorder differs from general learning difficulties associated with intellectual disability, because the learning difficulties occur in the presence of normal levels of intellectual functioning (i.e., IQ score of at least 70 + 5). If intellectual disability is present, specific learning disorder can be diagnosed only when the learning difficulties are in excess of those usually associated with the intellectual disability.

Learning difficulties due to neurological or sensory disorders. Specific learning dis­order is distinguished from learning difficulties due to neurological or sensory disorders (e.g., pediatric stroke, traumatic brain injury, hearing impairment, vision impairment), be­cause in these cases there are abnormal findings on neurological examination.

Neurocognitive disorders. Specific learning disorder is distinguished from learning problems associated with neurodegenerative cognitive disorders, because in specific learning disorder the clinical expression of specific learning difficulties occurs during the developmental period, and the difficulties do not manifest as a marked decline from a for­mer state.

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Specific learning disorder is distinguished from the poor academic performance associated with ADHD, because in the latter condition the problems may not necessarily reflect specific difficulties in learning academic skills but rather may reflect difficulties in performing those skills. However, the co-occurrence of specific learning disorder and ADHD is more frequent than expected by chance. If criteria for both disorders are met, both diagnoses can be given.

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Psychotic disorders. Specific learning disorder is distinguished from the academic and cognitive-processing difficulties associated with schizophrenia or psychosis, because with these disorders there is a decline (often rapid) in these functional domains.

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